Growth and development: ages 6 to 12 (school age) - Child Health Orange County (2023)

Growth and development: ages 6 to 12 (school age) - Child Health Orange County (1)

As children move from elementary school students to teenagers, you can expect many changes in their physical appearance and favorite hobbies. Children between 6 and 12 years old begin to value friendships and become more involved in activities such as sports and/or painting.

Doctors use certain milestones to determine whether a child is developing as expected. There is a wide range of what is considered normal, so some children pick up skills sooner or later than others. Children born prematurely reach milestones later. Always talk to your doctor about your child's progress.

What can my 6-12 year old do at this age?

As your child continues to grow, you'll notice new and exciting skills as they develop. Although children progress at different rates and have different interests, the following are some of the common milestones that children in this age group can reach:

6 to 7 years:

  • Enjoy lots of activities and stay busy
  • I like to paint and draw
  • Practice skills to improve
  • jump sail
  • to go by bicycle
  • can tie shoelaces
  • Can do simple calculations like addition and subtraction

Children 8-9 years old can:

  • Pray, pray to persiga
  • Dress fully and ready
  • Using tools (e.g. hammer, screwdriver)

Children 10-12 years old can:

  • I like to write, draw and paint.

What does my 6-12 year old understand?

As children reach school age, their skills and understanding of concepts and the world around them continue to grow. While children can progress at different rates, the following are some of the common milestones that children in this age group can reach:

6 to 7 years:

(Video) Piaget's Stages of Development

  • Understand the concept of numbers
  • you know day and night
  • You can distinguish right and left hand.
  • You can copy complex shapes, e.g. B a diamond
  • can you tell the time
  • You can understand the commands with three separate instructions
  • Can explain objects and their uses.
  • You can repeat three numbers backwards.
  • Can read age-appropriate books and/or materials.

8 to 9 years:

  • can count backwards
  • know the date
  • Keep reading and enjoy reading
  • understand fractions
  • Understand the concept of space.
  • drawing and painting
  • Can name months and days of the week in sequence
  • He likes to collect things

10 to 12 years:

  • write stories
  • I like to write letters
  • read well
  • Have fun calling or texting

Growth and development: ages 6 to 12 (school age) - Child Health Orange County (2)

Wellness and fitness milestones

Children this age need physical activity to build strength, coordination and confidence and lay the foundation for a healthy lifestyle. They also get more control over how active they are. Children who enjoy sports and exercise tend to stay active throughout their lives. Staying in shape can improve children's school performance, boost self-esteem, prevent obesity and reduce the risk of serious illnesses like high blood pressure, diabetes and heart disease in the future.

What is "normal" physical growth for a 6-12 year old?

For children aged 6-12, there is still a wide range of "normals" in terms of height, weight and shape. Children tend to grow at a steady pace, growing 6 to 7 centimeters a year. When it comes to weight, children gain between 4 and 7 pounds. (2-3 kg) per year until the onset of puberty.

This is also a time when children start to develop feelings about what they look like and how they are growing up. Some girls may worry about being "too tall", especially those who are developing early. Children tend to be susceptible when they are very young.

Try to teach your child that what matters is not "looking" a certain way, but being healthy. Children cannot change the genes that determine how tall they grow or when puberty begins. But they can reach their full potential if they develop healthy eating habits and stay physically active.

Your doctor will take measurements at regular exams and then plot your child's results on a standard growth chart to track over time and compare with other children of the same age and gender.

(Video) Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development

How can I help my child grow?

Normal growth, aided by good nutrition, adequate sleep and regular exercise, is one of the best general indicators of a child's health. Your child's growth pattern is largely determined by genetics.

If you force kids to eat more or get more vitamins, minerals or other nutrients, they won't grow bigger and can lead to weight problems. Accepting children as they are helps them develop self-acceptance. Good mental health is important for healthy development, strong relationships and resilience.

Growth and development: ages 6 to 12 (school age) - Child Health Orange County (3)

How active should my 6-12 year old be?

School-aged children should have many opportunities to participate in a variety of activities, sports and games that suit their personality, ability, age and interests. Through physical activity, children learn about athletics, goal setting, overcoming challenges, teamwork and the value of practice.

Physical activity guidelines for school-aged children recommend that they doat least 1 hourof moderate to vigorous physical activity daily. Furthermore:

  • Most physical activity should be aerobic, where children use large muscles and continue for a while.
  • Examples of aerobic activities are running, swimming and dancing.
  • School-aged children typically have short bouts of moderate to vigorous physical activity that are alternated with light activity or rest throughout the day. Any moderate to vigorous activity counts towards the 60-minute goal.
  • Muscle-strengthening and bone-strengthening physical activity should be included at least 3 days a week.
  • Children naturally develop strong muscles and bones as they run, jump and play. No formal weight programs are required. However, they are safe if properly designed and monitored.

Should my child play sports?

Consider your child's age and developmental level, natural abilities, and interests. Children ages 6-8 improve basic physical skills such as jumping, throwing, kicking and catching. Some like to do this on organized sports teams, but non-competitive leagues are better for younger kids. Children aged 9-12 hone, hone and coordinate their skills. Some get even more involved in a sport, while others drop out as competition intensifies and the level of play improves. Regardless of age or activity, it's important to show your support by coaching your child's team or cheering in the stands on game days.

It's okay if a child isn't interested in traditional sports, but it's important to find alternative ways to be active. Brainstorm activities with your children that seem appropriate. Encourage a child who is not into soccer, basketball, or other team sports to explore other active options such as karate, fencing, golf, biking, skateboarding, and tennis. Most kids don't mind physical activities as long as they're having fun.

fitness at home

Many parents and children think of organized sports when they think of fitness. While enrolling a child in a sports team has many benefits, training and playing once or twice a week is not enough to meet activity goals. Parents also shouldn't rely solely on physical education classes in schools to get their children enough exercise.

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Here are some ways to keep your child moving at home:

  • Make physical activity part of your daily routine. From chores to the after-dinner walk, keep your family active every day.
  • Plan plenty of time to play freely. Children can burn more calories and have more fun when left alone. Playing tag, riding bikes around the neighborhood, and building snowmen is fun and healthy.
  • Have a variety of games and sports equipment ready. It doesn't have to be expensive: a selection of balls, hula hoops and skipping ropes can keep kids busy for hours.
  • Be active together. It will get you moving and kids love to play with their parents.
  • Limit the time you spend on sedentary activities such as watching TV, using electronic devices, the Internet, and playing video games.

If you run out of opportunities at home, use the local playgrounds and sports fields. Make family outings a regular part of your daily routine. Let family members choose an activity: go hiking, ice skating, or try rock climbing. Anything goes as long as everyone can participate. And remember, you're helping to show your kids that exercise is important by exercising regularly.

Prevent sport-related injuries

Children who play sports are at risk of injury, so make sure your child wears the correct protective gear, such as shin guards and cleats for soccer or a helmet and pads for inline skating or skateboarding. Children who specialize in a sport are also at risk for overuse injuries, including stress fractures and joint injuries. When a child is in pain, it's best to rest and let the injury heal before playing again.

A child with a chronic medical condition or disability should not be excluded from these physical activities for fear of a sport-related injury. Some activities may need to be changed or adjusted, others may be too risky depending on the condition. It's best to talk to your doctor about which activities are safe for your child.

If your child complains of pain during or after physical activity, talk to your doctor.

How long should my child between 6 and 12 sleep?

School-age children need 9 to 12 hours of sleep at night. Sleep problems can arise at this age for several reasons. Homework, sports, extracurricular activities, screen time and hectic family schedules can all contribute to children not getting the sleep they need. Sleep-deprived children may become hyperactive or irritable and have trouble paying attention in school.

It's still important to have a consistent bedtime, especially on school nights. Set aside plenty of technology-free time before bed so your child can relax before the lights go out. Consider turning off electronic devices at least an hour before bed. Avoid a TV in your bedroom.

look at ourGuide to healthy sleep for kidsFor more information.

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Puberty, or sexual development, is a time of dramatic change for both boys and girls. The age at which the physical changes of puberty usually begin varies greatly.

In both sexes, these hormonal changes are accompanied by growth spurts that turn boys into physically mature teenagers as their bodies develop. You may also experience side effects from these hormones, such as acne and mood swings.

puberty in girls

Breast development, often the first noticeable sign of puberty in girls, can begin any time between the ages of 8 and 13. Events in girls during puberty:

  • The breasts begin to develop and the hips round out.
  • The increase in height growth rate begins.
  • Pubic hair begins to appear, usually 6 to 12 months after breast development begins. About 15% of girls develop pubic hair before breast development begins.
  • The uterus and vagina, as well as the labia and clitoris, increase in size.
  • Pubic hair is well developed and breasts continue to grow. Each breast can grow at a different rate and may not be the same size.
  • The rate of growth in height peaks approximately 2 years after the onset of puberty. The average age is 12 years.
  • Menstruation begins about 2 years after breast development begins and almost always after the maximum rate of growth in height has been reached. The average age is 12.5 years.
  • Once girls begin menstruating, they typically continue to grow by about an inch to two inches, reaching their final adult height around age 14 or 15. Girls can experience this at younger or older ages, depending on when puberty starts.

puberty in boys

Most boys experience the first physical changes of puberty between ages 10 and 16 and tend to grow most rapidly between ages 12 and 15. The growth spurt in boys occurs on average about 2 years later than in girls. By age 16, most children stop growing, but their muscles continue to develop.

Other features of puberty in boys include:

  • The penis and testicles increase in size. Testicles can grow at different rates and may not be the same size.
  • Pubic hair appears, followed by axillary and facial hair.
  • The voice deepens and can crack or crack at times.
  • The Adam's apple, or laryngeal cartilage, grows.
  • The testicles begin to produce sperm.

communication milestones

How does my 6-12 year old interact with others?

A very important part of growing up is being able to interact and socialize with others. During the school years, parents will see a transition in their children as they move from playing alone to having more friends and social groups. As friendships become more important, the child still loves his parents and enjoys being part of a family. Although every child is unique and develops different personalities, the following behavioral traits that may be present in your child are common:

6 to 7 years:

  • collaborate and share
  • You can be jealous of other people and siblings.
  • Happy to copy adults
  • He likes to play alone, but friends are becoming more important.
  • Play with same-sex friends
  • You may have occasional outbursts of anger.
  • You can be humble with your body.
  • he likes to play board games

8 to 9 years:

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  • Like competition and games.
  • Start mixing friends and playing with kids of different genders.
  • You can be humble with your body.
  • Enjoy clubs and groups like scouts or guides
  • You might be curious about relationships, but you won't admit it.

10 to 12 years:

  • values ​​friendship; can have a best friend
  • You may develop romantic interests.
  • Like and respect parents.
  • I like to talk with others.

How can I help improve my 6-12 year old child's social skills?

Consider the following ways to increase your school-age child's social skills:

  • Set and provide appropriate boundaries, policies and expectations and apply them consistently with appropriate consequences.
  • Model appropriate behavior.
  • Praise your child for cooperation and personal accomplishments.
  • Help your child choose activities that are appropriate for their abilities.
  • Encourage your child to talk to you and be open about his feelings.
  • Encourage your child to read and read with your child.
  • Encourage your child to participate in hobbies and other activities.
  • Encourage physical activity.
  • promote self-discipline; Expect your child to follow established rules.
  • Teach your child to respect and listen to authority figures.
  • Teach your child to be aware of the consequences of his behavior and to empathize with others.
  • Encourage your child to talk about peer pressure and help them set guidelines for dealing with peer pressure.
  • Spend quiet time together, with your full attention on your child. A strong, loving relationship can have a direct positive impact on your child's mental health.
  • Encourage outdoor time.
  • Limit TV, video games, and computer time.

reviewed byDr. Vila Lídia, CHOC Children's Hospital, CHOC Primary Care - May 2021


What are the physical changes of school age children from 6 12 years of age? ›

For 6- to 12-year-olds, there continues to be a wide range of “normal” regarding height, weight and shape. Kids tend to get taller at a steady pace, growing about 2-2.5 inches (6 to 7 centimeters) each year. When it comes to weight, kids gain about 4–7 lbs. (2–3 kg) per year until puberty starts.

What stage of development is age from 6 to 12 years? ›

Middle Childhood (Ages 6-12) A child's developmental path in their middle childhood years (between 6 and 12 years of age) contributes substantially to the adolescent, and adult they will become. Middle childhood is a stage where children move into expanding roles and environments.

What do 6 12 year olds need to experience for healthy social-emotional development? ›

Children Ages 5 to 12 Years Old
  • Develop greater empathy.
  • Establish and maintain positive relationships and friendships.
  • Start developing a sense of morality.
  • Control impulsive behavior.
  • Identify and manage emotions.
  • Form a positive self-concept and self-esteem (identity formation has begun)
  • Become resilient.

What is the physical development for 7 to 12 year old? ›

At this stage, children experience changes such as these:

Increase in body strength and hand dexterity through physical activities. Improved coordination and reaction time. Increase in large-muscle coordination, leading to success in organized sports and games.

What are the major developmental characteristics of 6 to 12 years old? ›

The Growing Child: School-Age (6 to 12 Years)
  • Enjoys many activities and stays busy.
  • Likes to paint and draw.
  • May lose first tooth.
  • Vision is as sharp as an adult's vision.
  • Practices skills in order to become better.
  • Jumps rope.
  • Rides a bike.

What types of communication skills are seen in a typically developing child ages 6 12? ›

Usually, kids will understand more vocabulary words and concepts than they can express. Your child should be able to engage in narrative discourse and share ideas and opinions in clear speech.

What growth and development happens at age 6? ›

At 6-8 years, you can expect sophisticated play, stronger friendships, tricky emotions, improved thinking and physical skills, and more. Support development by encouraging children to explore ideas, focusing on children's strengths, reading together, and talking about tough topics.

What are the 6 stages of growth and development? ›

  • Infancy (neonate and up to one year age)
  • Toddler ( one to five years of age)
  • Childhood (three to eleven years old) - early childhood is from three to eight years old, and middle childhood is from nine to eleven years old.
  • Adolescence or teenage (from 12 to 18 years old)
  • Adulthood.
Sep 3, 2022

What stage of development is 12? ›

Adolescence—the transition period between childhood and adulthood—encompasses ages 12 to 19.

What are 6 ways to help children develop social skills? ›

6 Ways to Improve Your Child's Social Skills
  • Follow Their Interests. Enjoying others will come more naturally when a child is doing something they are genuinely interested in. ...
  • Learn to Ask Questions. ...
  • Practice Role Playing. ...
  • Teach Empathy. ...
  • Know Your Child's Limits. ...
  • Be a Good Role Model.

What skills should a 12 year old have? ›

30 things kids should know how to do by 12
  • Cook for themselves. Not all the time! ...
  • Do their own laundry. This one isn't just to help their parents. ...
  • Use public transit. ...
  • Get to and from school on their own.
  • Do a grocery run. ...
  • Have non-electronic fun.
  • Watch over a younger child for brief stints. ...
  • Maintain a calendar.
Jul 7, 2022

What social skills should a 12 year old have? ›

Identifying themselves with a peer group; they may do things with others that they'd never attempt alone. Learning to accept and value other points of view. Communicating with peers through a variety of methods. Demonstrating the ability to set personal goals.

What happens at a 12 year old physical? ›

The doctor or nurse will also check your child's body.

Measure height and weight and figure out your child's body mass index (BMI) Check your child's blood pressure. Check your child's vision and hearing. Check your child's body parts (this is called a physical exam)

What responsibilities should a 12 year old have? ›

Below are a few common chores that can be assigned to a 12-year-old:
  • Putting away their belongings.
  • Keeping their room room clean.
  • Doing laundry and folding clothes.
  • Setting the table.
  • Washing dishes.
  • Feeding and walking pets.
  • Vacuuming, dusting, cleaning.
  • Helping with food prep or cooking.
Jul 21, 2021

Which phase of development is from 9 to 12 years? ›

Physical development

Enter puberty, a time when hormones produced in the pituitary gland trigger production of testosterone in males, estrogen/progesterone in females [This usually begins earlier in girls (nine to 12) than in boys (11 to 14).

In what areas do the intellectual abilities of children 6 12 improve? ›

Children ages 6 to 12, usually think in concrete ways (concrete operations). This can include things like how to combine, separate, order, and transform objects and actions. Adolescence marks the beginning development of more complex thinking processes (also called formal logical operations).

What is the cognitive development of a 12 year old? ›

Children become increasingly competent at adult-style thinking during the "tween" years. Learn more. Around the age of 11 or 12, children learn to think about abstract concepts. They complete what Piaget termed the concrete operational period and enter the formal operation period.

What are some areas for growth for your child? ›

Four major areas
  • Motor development. Motor development includes gross and fine motor skills. ...
  • Cognitive development. From birth, babies are already developing cognitive abilities such as thinking, memory, attention, reasoning, and planning. ...
  • Emotional development. ...
  • Social development.

What are the six tips for communicating with school age children? ›

Components of Communication
  • Be respectful. It is important to always speak to school-age children and youth in a respectful way. ...
  • Be truthful. School-age children and youth ask a lot of questions. ...
  • Be age appropriate. ...
  • Practice active listening. ...
  • Take the time to talk. ...
  • Consider tone and body language.

What is the stage from 5 to 12 years called? ›

From starting school to entering puberty, age five to 12 is a time of great progress and development for your child. While the changes may be more gradual, your child's thinking, emotions and body will continue to develop.

What characteristics of children ages 6 11 have you observed? ›

Children in middle childhood (ages 6-11) continue to grow in their mental abilities, physical abilities, use of language, self-control, friendships, and social skills. They are usually able to think logically and know the difference between fantasy and reality.

What is typical growth and development for a child? ›

Between ages 1 and 2, a toddler will gain only about 5 pounds (2.2 kilograms). Weight gain will remain at about 5 pounds (2.2 kilograms) per year between ages 2 to 5. Between ages 2 to 10 years, a child will grow at a steady pace. A final growth spurt begins at the start of puberty, sometime between ages 9 to 15.

When comparing the growth of children from ages 6 to 11? ›

When comparing the growth of children from ages 6 to 11 to infants or adolescents, one notices that children: grow slowly and steadily. The health habits that children develop during the middle childhood years are: related to their health in adolescence and adulthood.

What are 6 year olds learning in school? ›

Six-year-olds will astound you with their abilities! They are becoming readers, writers and mathematicians. They enjoy taking on new roles and responsibilities and using their reasoning skills to solve problems. Most still enjoy — and benefit from — imaginative play, and they are eager to develop strong friendships.

What are the 4 main types of growth and development? ›

Human development is a lifelong process of physical, behavioral, cognitive, and emotional growth and change.

What are the 6 areas of child development? ›

The six areas of learning
  • Personal, Social and Emotional Development. ...
  • Communication, Language and Literacy. ...
  • Mathematical Development. ...
  • Knowledge and Understanding of the World. ...
  • Physical Development. ...
  • Creative Development.

What is the period of human development from 7 to 12 years of age called? ›

This led Piaget to develop four important stages of cognitive development: sensorimotor stage (birth to age 2), preoperational stage (age 2 to 7), concrete-operational stage (ages 7 to 12), and formal-operational stage (ages 11 to 12, and thereafter).

What are milestones of development for child from 5/12 years? ›

Pays more attention to friendships and teams. Wants to be liked and accepted by friends. Shows rapid development of mental skills. Learning better ways to describe experiences and talk about feelings.

What are the 7 stages of child development explain each stage? ›

There are seven stages a human moves through during his or her life span. These stages include infancy, early childhood, middle childhood, adolescence, early adulthood, middle adulthood and old age.

How can you get social goals of a 6 12 year old? ›

How can I encourage my child's social abilities?
  1. Setting limits, guidelines, and expectations and enforcing them with appropriate penalties.
  2. Modeling good behavior.
  3. Complimenting your child for being cooperative and for personal achievements.
  4. Helping your child choose activities that are suitable for his or her abilities.

What are three life skills that can assist a Grade 12? ›

These are:
  • positive attitude.
  • communication.
  • self-management.
  • thinking skills.
  • teamwork.
  • willingness to learn.
  • resilience.

How do I make my 12 year old feel good? ›

Allow them some privacy, especially with friends, but still make time for family activities," explains Dr. Sheff. Whether you play board games, participate in physical activities, or explore new places, doing activities together is a great way to bond with your child, no matter their age.

What is the best way to discipline a 12 year old? ›

Discipline Strategies That Work
  1. Engage in Problem-Solving.
  2. Use Natural Consequences.
  3. Rethink the Reward System.
  4. Create a Behavior Contract.
  5. Provide Pre-Teaching.
  6. Take Away Privileges.
  7. Prioritize Connection.
  8. Avoid Labeling Your Child.
Mar 18, 2022

What do 6 12 year olds need to experience for healthy social emotional development? ›

Children Ages 5 to 12 Years Old
  • Develop greater empathy.
  • Establish and maintain positive relationships and friendships.
  • Start developing a sense of morality.
  • Control impulsive behavior.
  • Identify and manage emotions.
  • Form a positive self-concept and self-esteem (identity formation has begun)
  • Become resilient.

What are 6 social skills? ›

Six Important Social Skills for Kids
  • Listening skills. All adults know that listening isn't always something that comes naturally – and certainly not always willingly! ...
  • Following Directions. ...
  • Sharing. ...
  • Cooperation. ...
  • Using Manners. ...
  • Respecting Personal Space.

How to improve social skills? ›

12 Ways To Improve Social Skills And Make You Sociable Anytime
  1. Start Small if Necessary. ...
  2. Ask Open-Ended Questions. ...
  3. Encourage Others to Talk About Themselves. ...
  4. Create Goals For Yourself. ...
  5. Offer Compliments Generously. ...
  6. Read Books About Social Skills. ...
  7. Practice Good Manners. ...
  8. Pay Attention to Your Body Language.
Dec 31, 2013

What are the physical changes in school age? ›

Physical Developmental Milestones for School-Age Children

School-age children gain between four and seven pounds each year., Increases in height will vary, and a three-to-six height difference in age groups is typical. Growth spurts are common in school-age children, as are periods of slow growth.

What are the main changes in the body from 5 12 years old? ›

Just before puberty, a growth spurt will occur in girls that may temporarily cause boys to fall behind in height. Girls will also begin to develop breast and start their periods, while boys begin to grow facial hair. Both will grow pubic hair. Puberty can begin earlier or later depending on the child.

What is physical changes at of 6 years old? ›

Children between ages 6 and 10 make major gains in muscle strength and coordination. Most children within this age range develop basic motor skills, such as kicking, catching, and throwing. Gradually, children become more skilled at more complex activities, such as dancing, shooting a basketball, or playing the piano.

What is the physical development of 6 12 months? ›

Your baby will crawl around on her hands and knees and transition herself up to sitting without help from you. Your baby will be able to support herself while sitting with different leg positions and playing with toys without falling.


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